Things I Look Forward To // Being Published

I dream of being published someday - and what writer doesn't?  That mental picture of holding a printed book in our hands - with our name on the cover - is what can push us on when we're discouraged.  It's what we hope to accomplish.  But what other sort of things can happen once you're published?  What do you have to look forward to?
  • Holding a book with your name on the cover. is that not cool?  How is that not rewarding?  Don't you just get shivers of excitement by imagining a beautiful cover...with that title you picked...your name...your words inside...
  • Putting your book on your shelf.  Oh, the see my printed work beside my favorite works by other authors.
  • Bragging rights.  (Also known as Getting to introduce yourself as an Author.)  You can get an "I am an Author" bumper sticker to put on your car.  When meeting new people you can call yourself an Author.  You can hand out business cards and not look weird.  You no longer have to smile awkwardly and say, "Well, I'm not finished with the book yet."
  • New work.  Yes, just because it's published doesn't mean I'm done.  There will be other things to do...getting the book out there so others can read signings...newsletters....publicitiy....the whole lot.  But you know?  It's something different than first drafting and editing, and right now, I'm ready for something different, even if it's harder.
  • The Fandom.  You know your favorite book, and how much time you spend obsessing about it?  Someone, someday, may do the same with the very story you are writing right now.  I can't wait to see what  fanart, fanfics, and ships people come up with!  I can't wait to see what characters are loved most...what pairings are best loves...and what little stories (or giant epics) they will write with my characters.
  • Starting something new.  Once this trilogy is finished (published), I can't wait to start working on the next book or series.  (Wait...I thought I said I was ready to stop drafting and editing???  Oh well....)
  • Seeing my hard work accomplishing something.  All those late nights...the plotting headaches....the crude maps....the editing blues....and this is what came of all that.
What do y'all look forward to (in regards to your WIPs)?  Anything I should add to the list?

A Book-Reading Family

I recently came to the conclusion that my family likes books.

I figured this out as I stacking new books onto the fifth bookshelf in the den.

I figured it more out when I looked at the five other bookshelves in the room often called the toy room, the spare room, the school room, and the library.

Looking at the three bookshelves in my dad's office, the two in our dining room, the one in my room, the one in the kid's room, the one in my brother's room, the cubbies for books and magazines in the bathrooms, and the occasional boxes of books that can be found in storage in the basement and attic (and let me not forget the baskets of magazines and the stacks of old books on desks and tables for "decoration" that can be found throughout the house as well).

Whenever we get a new stack of books book we have a "book-smelling party" where we take turns sticking our nose in between pages and sniffing deeply.  We all sit together on Sunday afternoons and read books.  We frequently read aloud books to each other so we can "share in the reading" of them.  We stare at all the books we have and say "I can't wait to read that one!" or "I can't believe we got another copy of this one!" and "You read that one?  Great, how was it?"

So my family apparently is apparently a bunch of book readers collectors.

This is okay.  There is nothing wrong with buying a bunch of books and not reading them (apparently that's what retirement is for...).  But how does this affect writers?

Your family supports you in your writing.

Because - hey! more books.  And good books, too, right?  They know I love books, and so they find it completely natural that I write them as well.  My parents enjoy reading what I write (and love editing it, too).  My siblings and I bounce story ideas off each other.  My mom will come up and say, "I've got another story idea - someone should write this!"

Your father will let you know that you're not reading enough books.

Even though I have a decent-sized stack that makes up by TBR, my father will say "Make sure you're reading enough!"
No one minds you reading at the table.
Except during dinner.  Because that is the family meal.  But want to read during breakfast or lunch!  Go for it!
Your mom spent countless hours looking for good books for you to read when you were younger, and made sure school always included reading.
I read soooooo much for school.  Lots of historical fiction.  Lots of writing exercises.
You're not the only one carrying stacks of books around a used book store.
'Nuff said.
You're not considered crazy when you walk laps in the backyard reading aloud a more difficult book (because reading aloud helps you understand better) or when you sit with the horses and read aloud to them (for the same reason)(and because horses make everything better).
Because my family knows.
I grew up with amazing bed-times stories from my father; being read to by my mother; inventing little "stories" with my siblings while we played together. 
When we sit together around the table, we are constantly telling stories - what we did, what we thought, what we wanted to do.  We make each other laugh.  We read the Bible together.  We share stories.
Does anyone else live in a book-loving family?

Indie Christian Books Blog Tour // Interview with Jaye L. Knight

Alright everyone, I have some rather extremely exciting news!!

Who here likes books?
*glances at hypothetical raised hands*

Who here likes package deals, free shipping, discounted, $0.99, and even free books?
*glances at hypothetical bloggers shouting and hollering and waving both hands*

Well, good news awaits you!  In honor of Thanksgiving and Black Friday, a number of independent Christian authors have banded together to offer a huge selection of discounted books between Nov. 24th and 30th.  All genres, sizes, formats, you name it!

On November 24th, the Indie Christian Books website ( will go live.  Every single book listed will be on sale in one or more ways.  Find discounted paperbacks, dozens of books offered with free shipping, $0.99 ebooks, package deals, and more.  Even if you have a budget of $0, new reading material awaits you.  When you purchase a paperback book through you'll be eligible to enter an exclusive giveaway, including free books and an Amazon gift card!

You can also meet the authors by visiting the Author Database on the website.  Want to get to know the authors better and have the chance to win some fun prizes?  Join the week long FaceBook party, which will feature over 39 authors over 7 days.  Seriously.  You know you want to at least stop by and check out what's going on.  If you just want to follow via blogs, check out the list of all the bloggers and supporters doing interviews, reviews, and announcements!

AND, as a part of this book sale, I have interviewed author Jaye L. Knight, about the first book in the Ilyon Chronicles, Resistance!  As some of y'all might know, I have recently started reading her series, and, to tell the truth, I am hooked.  So it was a great honor to get to ask her a few questions.  It was a struggle not to just ramble about the book and the characters and the plot and the storyworld...

Jaye L. Knight is an award-winning author, homeschool graduate, and shameless tea addict with a passion for Christian fantasy. Armed with an active imagination and love for adventure, Jaye weaves stories of truth, faith, and courage with the message that, even in the deepest darkness, God’s love shines as a light to offer hope. She has been penning stories since the age of eight and resides in the Northwoods of Wisconsin.

What was the first spark of an idea that started you down the path of writing Resistance?  Was it a character, a plot, etc?  Or did you just start writing with no real clue as to what the story would become?

Resistance began with the spark of an idea for Jace.  I was reading DragonQuest by Donita K. Paul, and at a scene where I discovered that my favorite character in the series was a half-blood, it set my creative gears turning.  Everything grew from there.

Which character arc came first in the plotting - Jace or Kyrin?

Jace.  After all, being the character that started everything, he was the one I focused on at the beginning of planning the series.

When you first started writing, did you know this story would turn into the series that it is now?

At first, I thought it would be a trilogy. I knew right away it would be longer than just one book.  Then it grew to seven books (yikes), until I ended up combining books 2 and 3 and it settled at six books. (Of course, I wasn’t planning on two extra novellas that popped up along the way as well.)

When reading Resistance, I loved the little bit with Jace and Niton!  Have you had any experience with horses prior to writing them?  And is Niton a Friesian?  (Friesians are one of my favorite breeds, so I was just curious and had to ask!)

Yes, I did have quite a bit of experience with horses. I took two years of riding lessons in my late teens and then owned two different horses over the years. My youngest brother currently has a horse as well. And yes, Niton is a Friesian, or at least the fantasy equivalent. They have been my favorite breed for many years.

 Reading Resistance was a refreshing change from stories with magic and sorcery!  What made you decide to write the story with no magic?  Was it hard (did you sometimes wish you could add something like magic into the world)?  Or did it just feel right to have it as it is?

I didn’t consciously decide to write with no magic, that’s just how I’ve always written fantasy. I love history, so I write fantasy with a historical feel, and don’t ever feel like it needs magic. If I were to ever include “magic” it would be more like characters with certain gifts like X-Men. I guess I just like writing “realistic” fantasy.

Dare I ask who is your favorite character?  Does it depend on who you're writing at the moment, or does one character (or a few) ultimately stand out as a favorite?

Jace. Jace will always be my favorite Ilyon character. Choosing a second favorite would be much more difficult. That does depend on who I’m writing at the moment. Different ones I particularly enjoy writing are Kaden, Daniel, Talas, Trask, and Aaron. Incidentally, those are the ones I’d consider my “sassy” characters. I guess that’s why they are so much fun to write.

What brought you to the decision to indie publish?

Because it seemed easier and much more plausible than traditional publishing, especially since I was only 18 at the time. And, being young, I guess I was impatient to see my books in print.

Have you ever regretted it, or felt like people hesitate to read your book because it's not been published in the traditional way?

I don’t regret it at all. I love indie publishing. In the beginning, indie publishing definitely had a stigma, and I did feel like people might hesitate to read my books because of it, but I don’t feel like that anymore. Indie publishing has become so popular now that I think the stigma has almost disappeared.

What words of encouragement would you give to anyone considering indie publishing their novel?

If you have a good, well-edited book and a professional looking cover, there is no reason you can’t have success in indie publishing. There are so many more avenues and resources available now than when I started. The possibilities are endless.


So there you have it, everyone!  And seriously, go and get her series.  This book sale is the perfect time to do it, and you have no excuse.  Go.  Now.  You won't regret it.


Remember what I said about the giveaway?  If you purchase a paperback book through you are eligible for the giveaway!

a Rafflecopter giveaway


Alright.  I'm done.  I promise.

Oh, wait...I'm not...looky here....

*Just a quick note on the Ebooks Only page.  All books are listed as "Sold Out."  This only refers to paperback copies of these titles.  Please click onto the product pages to find descriptions and links to discounted or free ebooks.

**Acknowledgements:  Thanks to Leah E. Good and Kendra E. Ardnek for their work organizing this sale, and Hannah Mills for her fantastic design work on the website graphics.  Hannah can be contacted at hmills(at)omorecollege(dot)edu for more information about her design services.

The Mysteriously Nameless Tag of Doom

So Lena (my current nickname for Evangeline) tagged me last week sort of because I asked her.  She was talking about answering the questions to it, and I was like "tag me, so I have something to post during NaNo and don't have to spend a bunch of time prepping for it."  And she complied.

So enjoy.  Cause I certainly enjoyed not having to take time off from NaNo to prepare a super-amazing-and-informative-post-that-will-make-me-a-popular-blogger.

What book has been on your shelf the longest?

I just got a new bookshelf, so they all have only been on there for a few weeks.  I don't even think I've gotten any new books since I got the bookshelf...

What is your current read, your last read, and the book you’ll read next?

Currently reading:
I'm actually reading a paper-back copy, with Evangeline and another friend.  My Dad has this nice hard-backed one, though, that's he's also reading.  The notes are super helpful, but also a little distracting when you're trying to read. 

The Thought of God by Maurice Roberts
I've met the author twice, and he is a very dear man and retired preacher.  I highly recommend this book - it is a series of articles that he wrote, and they are very easy to understand, very thought-provoking, very encouraging, and really stir the reader towards thoughts of God!

Last Read:
Samara's Peril by Jaye L. Knight
I think it's my least favorite book in the series so far, but I still enjoyed it.  Full of adventure, feels, and friendship!

Next Read:
Exiles by Jaye L. Knight
This was going to be my reward for completing NaNoWriMo, but I may let it sit until I completely finish the draft of Words of Peace.  Cause once I start reading it, I probably won't be able to put it down, so I better hold off until the draft is finished!

What book did everyone like, but you hated?

The Book of the Dun Cow by Walter Wangerin Jr.
It was plain weird.  Just.  *squirms*  Weird.  Perhaps a little too much symbolism (I don't mind it, but not when every single little thing has some sort of hidden meaning...), and a lot of Chauntecleer screaming COCK A DOODLE DOO and the dog howling MAROOOOONED, and it was written in an odd style that I'm not used to, and I couldn't get into it at all.  Even thinking of that book gives me a headache.  But yet everyone gives it good reviews....

Not that it's a bad's just totally not my kind of reading.  Somehow.  'Cause on a normal basis I would enjoy a story about chickens.  I just probably won't read the next ones. 
On the other hand, my brother read it, and he enjoyed it.  So there's that.  If he ever gets the other ones, I may just skim them anyway...

What book do you keep telling yourself you’ll read, but you probably won’t?

Hmmm...not sure.  I've pretty much read all I've wanted read, save for books currently on my TBR, and I plan to read all those.  So...nothing here.

What book are you saving for retirement?

Retirement?  *record screech*  Wait...I've got to start thinking about that now???

Last page: read it first, or wait ’til the end?

Wait until the end, of course!!!  Only twice have I not read straight from the beginning to the end...and I regretted it both times.

Occurrence #1 - My Grandpappy got me Forest Born for my birthday, and I immedtialy started reading it...only to find out it was the last book of the Bayern series.  Whoops.

Occurrence #1 - I was getting ready to read Inkdeath, and as I flipped through the pages first (looking at the illustrations to prepare myself to read) the name Dustfinger caught my eye at the top of a page.  So I started reading, and...wait...he's alive???  Whoops again.

Acknowledgement: waste of paper and ink, or interesting aside?

I skim them in a second and then ignore them for the rest of eternity.  I don't think they're a waste, as I most certainly will be writing them when my books are published, but I doubt anyone reads them.  Unless they're funny.
Not to Self: Make your acknowledgements funny. 

Which book character would you switch places with?

Aravis, from The Horse and His Boy.  I want to go travel the countryside with a Prince and two talking horses!  (And maybe save Narnia while I'm at it.)
"The bolt of Tash falls from above!!!"
"Does it ever get caught on a hook halfway?"
Do you have a book that reminds you of something specific in your life? (Place, time, person?)

I have a couple books that I've received from different people (and thusly think of them when I read it) or took with me on trips (so I think of that trip when I read it), but nothing other than that.

Name a book that you acquired in an interesting way.

I was at Corbridge a few years ago, and found the book The Lantern Bearers for sale at the gift shop.  I couldn't remember reading it before, so I snatched it up.  When I started to read it, I found that I had already read it before, but at least I have my own copy now - and brought all the way from Merry Old England!

Another time, I let a friend borrow a horse book of mine, and when she "returned" it, it was a different horse book....but she said I could keep that one anyway, so I did.  I'm still waiting for the original one. 

Have you ever given a book away for a special reason to a special person?

I don't give away books.  I hoard them.  But also see above answer for the one time I "gave" a book away...

Which book has been with you most places?

My paperback copy of The Silmarillion.  It's tiny, and super easy to just tuck into my purse and take places.  It's been to England, Belarus, Germany, and all over the US (who knew I was such a traveler??).

Any “required reading” you hated in high school that wasn’t so bad later?

Well, to be honest, I was happy reading whatever I was given.  It's just like "Oh, great, a new book to read!!!  Kinda boring, but it's better than nothing, y'know??"  *speeds through book even though it's not to interesting or in my favorite genres*

Used or brand new?


Have you ever read a Dan Brown book?

No, and I will admit, I had to Google his name to even find out who he is...

Have you ever seen a movie you liked more than the book?

Prince Caspian.  The book was a little ho-hum (probably my least favorite Narnia book, actually), but the movie is probably my favorite Narnia movie.  I dunno....the movie just has a little more excitement and adventure, while the book is like...sloooowwww....

Have you ever read a book that’s made you hungry, cookbooks included?

That's my secret.  I'm always hungry. 

Who is the person whose book advice you’ll always take?

1) My parents.  They did the research when I was younger, and looked for good, clean, wholesome books for me to read.  When they tell me "this is a good book you can read," I have complete faith and trust that I can go ahead and start reading it.

2) Evangeline.  Honestly, I read waaaaaaaay more books then she does, but when she comes and says "Hey, I liked this one," I know it's good.  Or else she wouldn't have finished it, and she certainly wouldn't be telling me it was good if she didn't like it.

3)  Sarah.  She tells me about a good book, and I instantly have to go check it out.  She knows that I prefer books with less magic in them, and she respects it, and suggest books she knows I'll enjoy.  When she tells me of a good book, I'm sure it'll be good.

Is there a book out of your comfort zone (e.g., outside your usual reading genre) that you ended up loving?

Charity and Its Fruits, I would say.  It was one of my first attempts at reading "An Adult Theological" book.  I don't think I was a mature enough of a reader when I first attempted it, and so I put it down shortly, being just unable to read it.  Then I came back to it earlier this year, wanting to give it another go, and managed to get through it, and I really liked it.  I would love to read it again sometime!

The Re-Tag

Lisa @ Inkwell
Mary @ Sunshine and Scribblings
Anyone else who wants to do this tag so they don't have to write a fancy post during NaNo

NaNo Update

So I'm halfway through NaNo at the moment.  And it looks like I have survived this far (mostly).  And Scrivener has been great to use.  Instead of splitting chapters, I'm doing scenes.  So that's different, but not so different it's weirding me out.
Words of Peace, however, is behaving nicely.

Current Word Count:

Current Body Count:

Times I Forgot a Character Was Supposed to be Somewhere:
Additional Notes:

I've been keeping track of my time spent (a new thing I'm trying).  It keeps me from doing too much staring into space and from taking breaks to check distraction sites.  So far, I've only forgotten to start it once, and am pretty good at turning it off.

Doing good on keeping hair and teeth brushed, and staying hydrated.  I did a race last Saturday, and am using the swag to keep my bedroom stash of snacks and water well stocked.

And I have not deviated (much) from my outline.  Yay!!  The only real change I made was more of an bonus.  The outline was sort of "and they go travel here" and I made it more of a "they travel here, but on the way a few little exciting incidents happen."  So not really much of a deviation.
So where are y'all?  How's NaNo going for you?  Surviving?  Sinking?  Not doing the event so you're actually just chilling and watching everyone stress?  :)

Oh Yeah

When one is in certain situations, the perfect expression is needed, or else the entire thing will be a failure or else just plain embarrassing.  This will not only make such an event memorable to you and those around you, but will give others the appearance that you are on the top of things and not in the least concerned about what just happened.

Such an expression should not be too long, or else you may not have time to finish it (which only makes the situation worse).  Too complicated, and you yourself may not even remember it in time. If the expression is too simple or boring, people may not remember it, and then you might as well have not bothered. 

My expression is "Oh yeah" and I like to think it works quite well.


My first major (and only) running fall happened while Evangeline and I were out mountain running.  The sunset was beautiful, and I simply wasn't looking at the trail.  One minute I was looking at the trees, and the next I was the ground.  My knees took most of the fall, but they weren't bleeding - I would get some very nasty bruises, but nothing major.  So I got up and we kept running. 

By the time I got home, I had mostly forgotten about the fall.  The pain was almost gone (and I probably just associated it with my bad knee, which usually is a little twitchy after a run anyway).

But my mom notices instantly.  "What happened?!"

I glance at my knees, as if I'd forgotten.  "Oh, yeah..."


I have a young horse that likes to get a little bucky when he first starts into a canter (I call it his "Winter Soldier" mode).  Of course, I don't let him buck, so what usually happens is I urge him into a canter, he tosses his head and prances around for a few steps, and then he moves into the requested gait.  I don't usually think about this sequence, until I was riding with a group of local horsemen, and we decided to take a nice canter up the road.
So there I am, riding through that little prance...and the guy riding beside me starts laughing.  "Your horse is dancing!"

I shrug, smile a little, and say, "Oh, yeah."


When we meet a new family and are doing the usual introductions, it eventually comes out:  ...and Julian writes stories!
Everyone turns to me, and I casually shrug.  "Oh yeah."  Hopefully they won't ask for any more information or my mind will blank.
Sarah and I are hanging out at our campsite, and I let Pepper out of the temporary fencing and let him graze around the tent.  Eventually he gets a little too far away for my comfort, and I call his name and he comes right back to where we're sitting.
Two nearby campers look up from setting up their own fencing, and ask in surprise, "Did he just come when you called him?"
I smile.  "Oh, yeah."
"Wait, where's my insert anything here!?"
"Oh.. yeah..."
"I thought you said that you were going to meet me here at lunchtime?!"
"Oh...yeah..."  *laughs a little*
"Oh, you like The Lord of the Rings?  Well, you know, Tolkien wrote another one...the Sil...Sil-something or other.  Have you heard of that one?"
*grins*  "Oh, yeah..."

So what's your go-to word or phrase?  I'd love to know!

October // Fall // Camping

"The fire dances on the leaves of the trees
And no one hears but the forest and me."
Camping, anyone?
This is the main reason I love Fall: there's a better excuse to go camping!!!  And who doesn't love sitting on the bug-infested ground, with smoke in your eyes, watching your dinner burn to a crisp, and a cool breeze blowing leaves in your hair?
I love it.
I also love sleeping in my camping hammock, staring up at the stars while listening to raccoons drag my marshmallows into the bushes.
Because, really, sleeping in is overrated.  Who remembers how many times you slept in?  But camping trips - those memories will last forever.
As will that instinct to grab your marshmallows at the slightest rustle in the bushes.

On Character Sheets (or the lack thereof)

I absolutely love character sheets!  They combine two of my favorite things - lists and characters!  The sight of a list of questions to answer (usually in list format) gives me shivers of excitement.


That being said...I have written a number of books in the past year and a half, and I have not used a character sheet during any of the prep.

The sheets I'm talking about are the long ones you see - ranging from 20-35 questions are so, with things like "What's your favorite color?"  "Where did you grow up, and what effect did it have on your life?" and "If you could have one day all to yourself, what would you do?"

So what??

Let me explain.  I love those.  So why do I not do them?

A few reasons...

  • I have a busy life, and I would rather spend my free time actually writing.
  • I write mainly fantasy, and sometimes the questions don't quite match with a fantasy character, so I either have to skip the question, or substitute a better one.
  • If I started down the path of doing a sheet, I would never return.  I must do one for every.  Single.  Character.
  • Turns out, I don't actually need them to get the story done.
So what do I do instead?
I make a more simple character sheet...

Full Name/Nicknames:
Description: (ranges from hair/eye color to clothing choice, just a few short sentences will do the trick)
Personality:  (usually just a few sentences, enough for me to get the idea; maybe any little quirks or something that I know from the beginning)
Plot:  (anything that has to do with the story - what role they play, any changes they make, any growth they experience, and so on)

...find a picture or two...

Just to get an idea of their looks and/or clothing.  May or may not be 100% accurate, but just enough for me to feel like I can see them in my head.

...and then do a page of two of character journaling.

It gives me just a quick glimpse into their world and see how they see things.  Usually I try to write a page of them doing something very normal...getting up...going about their day...maybe a bit of action happens.  But I just want to get to know them a little - what do they care about, what do they like and not like?

Then I unleash myself into the story!

If I find anything that I can add to these lists (random family members showing up?)(hair color changes?)(suddenly becomes the bad guy) and keep on writing.  Often things do change a bit (usually names...) and I can make the necessary correction.  But learning more about the characters is half the fun of first drafting!

So what do y'all do?  Extensive character sheets?  Nothing at all?  Something in between?  I wanna know!

2017 Liebster Award

Well, la-dee-dah!  Lila at The Cheapskate Bibliomaniac nominated Saver of Memories for the 2017 Liebster Award!  She's a great blogger and also is part of the Rebellious Writing movement.  (Go click the links - you know you want to!)

(Technically the first blog I ever started reading is Go Teen Writers.  But GTW is used all the time by young writers/bloggers.  So...)


One of my favorite blogs is Jem Jones, Writer.

Jem is a blogger from Australia.  She's super sweet and nice and funny, and her blog emphasizes that.  When you first visit it, the first thing to catch your eye is a little owl looking right at you.  And it's adorable.  *melts*

As you keep scrolling down and reading her posts, you find Jem has this wonderful flair in her writing.  She has this knack for just...just...*words fail me*...being so relatable and enjoyable to read.  The gif's scattered throughout her post only add to the humor.

From time to time she shares writing ideas she hordes gathers from Pinterest.  These always hold some very interesting, thought-provoking (more importantly, writing-provoking) content.

If you haven't been by her place - seriously, check it out.  She's great. 


I, in turn, nominate...

wisdomcreates @ The Pen of a Ready Writer
Evangeline @ I Just Happened.

No pressure...and if you've already been nominated then....whoops...


Here are the rules!

~Thank the person who nominated you, and post a link to their blog on your blog.  Try to include a little promotion for the person who nominated you.  They will thank you for it and those whom you nominate will also help you out as well.

 ~Display the award on your blog by including it in your post and/or displaying it using a “widget” or a “gadget”.  (Not sure how to do that, but I hope I figured it out enough...)

~Write a 150-300 word post about your favorite blog that is not your own.  Explain why you like the blog, provide links.

~Nominate 5 – 11 blogs that you feel deserve the award, who have less than 200 followers.

~List these rules in your post.

~Inform the people/blogs that you nominated that they have been nominated for the Liebster award and provide a link for them to your post.  (They might not have ever heard of it!)

~Post a comment in the comments of –> the award post <– so your post and blog can be viewed.